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Nobel Prize for Medicine

areppim column chart and statistics of Nobel prize winners in medicine or physiology from 1901 to 2018, indicating the names, nationality and affiliation where applicable. Scientific breakthroughs in physiology or medicine are a monopoly of the western world. North America and Europe collected 47% and 45% respectively of Nobel prizes in the disciplines. The 8% balance went to other nations.


Scientific breakthroughs in physiology or medicine are a monopoly of the western world. North America and Europe collected 47% and 45% respectively of Nobel prizes in the disciplines. The 8% balance went to other nations whose laureates were often affiliated with US or European institutions. It is only logical that, given their leadership in the scientific discipline, North America and Europe also play a dominant role in the pharmaceutical industry. Nevertheless, the emergence of China, India, and Israel, all in possession of a powerful, competitive mass-production pharmaceutical industries, is threatening the traditional supremacy.

[In the chart double nationals are counted twice, once for each nationality]

Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine

1901 - 2018

YearNameGenderCitizenshipSecond CitizenshipBornAffiliation at the time of the award
2018James P.Allison MaleUnited States1948University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA , Parker Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy, San Francisco, CA, USA
2018TasukuHonjoMaleJapan1942Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
2017Jeffrey C.HallMaleUnited States 1945University of Maine, Maine, ME, USA
2017MichaelRosbashMaleUnited States 1944Brandeis University, Waltham, MA, USA, Howard Hughes Medical Institute
2017Michael W.YoungMaleUnited States 1949Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA
2016YoshinoriOhsumiMaleJapan 1945Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan
2015William C.CampbellMaleIreland 1930Drew University, Madison, NJ, USA.
2015SatoshiŌmuraMaleJapan 1935Kitasato University, Tokyo, Japan.
2015YouyouTuFemaleChina 1930China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China.
2014JohnO'KeefeMaleUnited States 1939University College, London, United Kingdom.
2014May-BrittMoserFemaleNorway 1963Centre for Neural Computation, Trondheim, Norway.
2014EdvardMoserMaleNorway 1962Kavli Institute for Systems Neuroscience, Trondheim, Norway.
2013James E.RothmanMaleUnited States 1950Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
2013Randy W.Schekman MaleUnited States 1948University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, MD, USA.
2013Thomas C.Südhof MaleGermanyUnited Sates1955Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, MD, USA.
2012Sir John B.GurdonMaleUnited Kingdom 1933Gurdon Institute, Cambridge, United Kingdom
2012ShinyaYamanakaMaleJapan 1962University Kyoto, Japan, and Gladstone Institutes, San Francisco, C, USA
2011Bruce A.BeutlerMaleUnited States 1957The Scripps Research Institute and University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas
2011Jules A.HoffmannMaleFrance 1941CNRS (Centre national de la recherche scientifique)
2011Ralph M.SteinmanMaleCanada 1943Rockefeller University
2010Robert G.EdwardsMaleUnited Kingdom 1925University of Cambridge
2009Elizabeth H. Blackburn FemaleAustralia 1948University of California
2009Carol W. Greider FemaleUnited States 1961Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
2009Jack W. Szostak MaleCanada 1952Harvard Medical School; Massachusetts General Hospital
2008Françoise Barré-SinoussiFemaleFrance 1947Regulation of Retroviral Infections Unit, Virology Department, Institut Pasteur
2008LucMontagnierMaleFrance 1932World Foundation for AIDS Research and Prevention
2008Haraldzur Hausen MaleGermany 1936German Cancer Research Centre
2007Mario R.CapecchiMaleUnited States 1937University of Utah
2007Sir Martin J. EvansMaleUnited Kingdom 1941Cardiff University
2007Oliver SmithiesMaleUnited States 1925University of North Carolina
2006Andrew Z.FireMaleUnited States 1959Stanford University School of Medicine
2006Craig C.MelloMaleUnited States 1960University of Massachusetts Medical School
2005Barry J.MarshallMaleAustralia 1951University of Western Australia
2005J. RobinWarrenMaleAustralia 1937 
2004RichardAxelMaleUnited States 1946Columbia University
2004Linda B.BuckFemaleUnited States 1947Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
2003Paul C.LauterburMaleUnited States 1929University of Illinois
2003Sir PeterMansfieldMaleUnited Kingdom 1933University of Nottingham, School of Physics and Astronomy
2002SydneyBrennerMaleUnited Kingdom 1927The Molecular Sciences Institute
2002H. RobertHorvitzMaleUnited States 1947Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
2002John E.SulstonMaleUnited Kingdom 1942The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
2001Leland H.HartwellMaleUnited States 1939Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
2001TimHuntMaleUnited Kingdom 1943Imperial Cancer Research Fund
2001Sir PaulNurseMaleUnited Kingdom 1949Imperial Cancer Research Fund
2000ArvidCarlssonMaleSweden 1923Göteborg University
2000PaulGreengardMaleUnited States 1925Rockefeller University
2000Eric R.KandelMaleUnited States 1929Columbia University
1999GünterBlobelMaleUnited States 1936Rockefeller University
1998Robert F.FurchgottMaleUnited States 1916SUNY Health Science Center
1998Louis J.IgnarroMaleUnited States 1941University of California School of Medicine
1998FeridMuradMaleUnited States 1936University of Texas Medical School at Houston
1997Stanley B.PrusinerMaleUnited States 1942University of California School of Medicine
1996Peter C.DohertyMaleAustralia 1940St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
1996Rolf M.ZinkernagelMaleSwitzerland 1944University of Zurich, Institute of Experimental Immunology
1995Edward B.LewisMaleUnited States 1918California Institute of Technology (Caltech)
1995ChristianeNüsslein-VolhardFemaleGermany 1942Max-Planck-Institut für Entwicklungsbiologie
1995Eric F.WieschausMaleUnited States 1947Princeton University
1994Alfred G.GilmanMaleUnited States 1941University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas
1994MartinRodbellMaleUnited States 1925National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
1993Richard J.RobertsMaleUnited Kingdom 1943New England Biolabs
1993Phillip A.SharpMaleUnited States 1944Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Center for Cancer Research
1992Edmond H.FischerMaleSwitzerlandUnited States1920University of Washington
1992Edwin G.KrebsMaleUnited States 1918University of Washington
1991ErwinNeherMaleGermany 1944Max-Planck-Institut für Biophysikalische Chemie
1991BertSakmannMaleGermany 1942Max-Planck-Institut für medizinische Forschung
1990Joseph E.MurrayMaleUnited States 1919Brigham and Women's Hospital
1990E. DonnallThomasMaleUnited States 1920Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
1989J. MichaelBishopMaleUnited States 1936University of California School of Medicine
1989Harold E.VarmusMaleUnited States 1939University of California School of Medicine
1988Sir James W.BlackMaleUnited Kingdom 1924London University, King's College Hospital Medical School
1988Gertrude B.ElionFemaleUnited States 1918Wellcome Research Laboratories
1988George H.HitchingsMaleUnited States 1905Wellcome Research Laboratories
1987SusumuTonegawaMaleJapan 1939Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
1986StanleyCohenMaleUnited States 1922Vanderbilt University School of Medicine
1986RitaLevi-MontalciniFemaleItalyUnited States1909Institute of Cell Biology of the C.N.R
1985Michael S.BrownMaleUnited States 1941University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas
1985Joseph L.GoldsteinMaleUnited States 1940University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas
1984Niels K.JerneMaleDenmark 1911Basel Institute for Immunology
1984Georges J.F.KöhlerMaleGermany 1946Basel Institute for Immunology
1984CésarMilsteinMaleArgentinaUnited Kingdom1927MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology
1983BarbaraMcClintockFemaleUnited States 1902Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
1982Sune K.BergströmMaleSweden 1916Karolinska Institutet
1982Bengt I.SamuelssonMaleSweden 1934Karolinska Institutet
1982John R.VaneMaleUnited Kingdom 1927The Wellcome Research Laboratories
1981David H.HubelMaleUnited States 1926Harvard Medical School
1981Roger W.SperryMaleUnited States 1913California Institute of Technology (Caltech)
1981Torsten N.WieselMaleSweden 1924Harvard Medical School
1980BarujBenacerrafMaleUnited States 1920Harvard Medical School
1980JeanDaussetMaleFrance 1916Université de Paris, Laboratoire Immuno-Hématologie
1980George D.SnellMaleUnited States 1903Jackson Laboratory
1979Allan M.CormackMaleUnited States 1924Tufts University
1979Godfrey N.HounsfieldMaleUnited Kingdom 1919Central Research Laboratories, EMI
1978WernerArberMaleSwitzerland 1929Biozentrum der Universität
1978DanielNathansMaleUnited States 1928Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
1978Hamilton O.SmithMaleUnited States 1931Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
1977RogerGuilleminMaleUnited States 1924The Salk Institute
1977Andrew V.SchallyMaleUnited States 1926Veterans Administration Hospital
1977RosalynYalowFemaleUnited States 1921Veterans Administration Hospital
1976Baruch S.BlumbergMaleUnited States 1925The Institute for Cancer Research
1976D. CarletonGajdusekMaleUnited States 1923National Institutes of Health
1975DavidBaltimoreMaleUnited States 1938Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
1975RenatoDulbeccoMaleUnited States 1914Imperial Cancer Research Fund Laboratory
1975Howard M.TeminMaleUnited States 1934University of Wisconsin
1974AlbertClaudeMaleBelgium 1899Université Catholique de Louvain
1974Christiande DuveMaleBelgium 1917Rockefeller University
1974George E.PaladeMaleUnited States 1912Yale University, School of Medicine
1973KonradLorenzMaleAustria 1903österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Institut für vergleichende Verhaltensforschung
1973NikolaasTinbergenMaleUnited Kingdom 1907University of Oxford
1973Karlvon FrischMaleGermany 1886Zoologisches Institut der Universität München
1972Gerald M.EdelmanMaleUnited States 1929Rockefeller University
1972Rodney R.PorterMaleUnited Kingdom 1917University of Oxford
1971Earl W.Sutherland, Jr.MaleUnited States 1915Vanderbilt University
1970JuliusAxelrodMaleUnited States 1912National Institutes of Health
1970Sir BernardKatzMaleUnited Kingdom 1911University College
1970Ulfvon EulerMaleSweden 1905Karolinska Institutet
1969MaxDelbrückMaleUnited States 1906California Institute of Technology (Caltech)
1969Alfred D.HersheyMaleUnited States 1908Carnegie Institution of Washington
1969Salvador E.LuriaMaleUnited States 1912Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
1968Robert W.HolleyMaleUnited States 1922Cornell University
1968H. GobindKhoranaMaleUnited States 1922University of Wisconsin
1968Marshall W.NirenbergMaleUnited States 1927National Institutes of Health
1967RagnarGranitMaleSweden 1900Karolinska Institutet
1967Haldan K.HartlineMaleUnited States 1903Rockefeller University
1967GeorgeWaldMaleUnited States 1906Harvard University
1966Charles B.HugginsMaleUnited States 1901University of Chicago, Ben May Laboratory for Cancer Research
1966PeytonRousMaleUnited States 1879Rockefeller University
1965FrançoisJacobMaleFrance 1920Institut Pasteur
1965AndréLwoffMaleFrance 1902Institut Pasteur
1965JacquesMonodMaleFrance 1910Institut Pasteur
1964KonradBlochMaleUnited States 1912Harvard University
1964FeodorLynenMaleGermany 1911Max-Planck-Institut für Zellchemie
1963Sir JohnEcclesMaleAustralia 1903Australian National University
1963Alan L.HodgkinMaleUnited Kingdom 1914University of Cambridge
1963Andrew F.HuxleyMaleUnited Kingdom 1917London University
1962FrancisCrickMaleUnited Kingdom 1916MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology
1962JamesWatsonMaleUnited States 1928Harvard University
1962MauriceWilkinsMaleUnited KingdomNew Zealand1916London University
1961Georgvon BékésyMaleUnited States 1899Harvard University
1960Sir Frank MacfarlaneBurnetMaleAustralia 1899Walter and Eliza Hall Institute for Medical Research
1960PeterMedawarMaleUnited Kingdom 1915University College
1959ArthurKornbergMaleUnited States 1918Stanford University
1959SeveroOchoaMaleUnited States 1905New York University, College of Medicine
1958GeorgeBeadleMaleUnited States 1903California Institute of Technology (Caltech)
1958JoshuaLederbergMaleUnited States 1925University of Wisconsin
1958EdwardTatumMaleUnited States 1909Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research
1957DanielBovetMaleItaly 1907Istituto Superiore di Sanità (Chief Institute of Public Health)
1956André F.CournandMaleUnited States 1895Columbia University Division, Cardio-Pulmonary Laboratory, Bellevue Hospital
1956WernerForssmannMaleGermany 1904Mainz University
1956Dickinson W.RichardsMaleUnited States 1895Columbia University
1955HugoTheorellMaleSweden 1903Nobel Medical Institute
1954John F.EndersMaleUnited States 1897Harvard Medical School
1954Frederick C.RobbinsMaleUnited States 1916Western Reserve University
1954Thomas H.WellerMaleUnited States 1915Research Division of Infectious Diseases, Children's Medical Center
1953HansKrebsMaleUnited Kingdom 1900Sheffield University
1953FritzLipmannMaleUnited States 1899Massachusetts General Hospital
1952Selman A.WaksmanMaleUnited States 1888Rutgers University
1951MaxTheilerMaleSouth Africa 1899Laboratories of the Division of Physiology or Medicine and Public Health, Rockefeller Foundation
1950Philip S.HenchMaleUnited States 1896Mayo Clinic
1950Edward C.KendallMaleUnited States 1886Mayo Clinic
1950TadeusReichsteinMaleSwitzerland 1897Basel University
1949WalterHessMaleSwitzerland 1881University of Zurich
1949EgasMonizMalePortugal 1874University of Lisbon
1948PaulMüllerMaleSwitzerland 1899Laboratorium der Farben-Fabriken J.R. Geigy A.G. (Laboratory of the J.R. Geigy Dye-Factory Co.)
1947GertyCoriFemaleUnited States 1896Washington University
1947CarlCoriMaleUnited States 1896Washington University
1947BernardoHoussayMaleArgentina 1887Instituto de Biologia y Medicina Experimental (Institute for Biology and Experimental Medicine)
1946Hermann J.MullerMaleUnited States 1890Indiana University
1945Ernst B.ChainMaleUnited Kingdom 1906University of Oxford
1945Sir AlexanderFlemingMaleUnited Kingdom 1881London University
1945Sir HowardFloreyMaleAustralia 1898University of Oxford
1944JosephErlangerMaleUnited States 1874Washington University
1944Herbert S.GasserMaleUnited States 1888Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research
1943HenrikDamMaleDenmark 1895Polytechnic Institute
1943Edward A.DoisyMaleUnited States 1893Saint Louis University
1939GerhardDomagkMaleGermany 1895Munster University
1938CorneilleHeymansMaleBelgium 1892Ghent University
1937AlbertSzent-GyörgyiMaleHungary 1893Szeged University
1936Sir HenryDaleMaleUnited Kingdom 1875National Institute for Medical Research
1936OttoLoewiMaleAustria 1873Graz University
1935HansSpemannMaleGermany 1869University of Freiburg im Breisgau
1934George R.MinotMaleUnited States 1885Harvard University
1934William P.MurphyMaleUnited States 1892Harvard University
1934George H.WhippleMaleUnited States 1878Rochester University
1933Thomas H.MorganMaleUnited States 1866California Institute of Technology (Caltech)
1932EdgarAdrianMaleUnited Kingdom 1889University of Cambridge
1932Sir CharlesSherringtonMaleUnited Kingdom 1857University of Oxford
1931OttoWarburgMaleGermany 1883Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut (now Max-Planck-Institut) für Biologie
1930KarlLandsteinerMaleAustria 1868Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research
1929ChristiaanEijkmanMaleNetherlands 1858Utrecht University
1929Sir FrederickHopkinsMaleUnited Kingdom 1861University of Cambridge
1928CharlesNicolleMaleFrance 1866 
1927JuliusWagner-JaureggMaleAustria 1857Vienna University
1926JohannesFibigerMaleDenmark 1867Copenhagen University
1924WillemEinthovenMaleNetherlands 1860Leiden University
1923Frederick G.BantingMaleCanada 1891University of Toronto
1923JohnMacleodMaleCanada 1876University of Toronto
1922Archibald V.HillMaleUnited Kingdom 1886London University
1922OttoMeyerhofMaleGermany 1884Kiel University
1920AugustKroghMaleDenmark 1874Copenhagen University
1919JulesBordetMaleBelgium 1870Brussels University
1914RobertBárányMaleAustria 1876Vienna University
1913CharlesRichetMaleFrance 1850Sorbonne University
1912AlexisCarrelMaleFrance 1873Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research
1911AllvarGullstrandMaleSweden 1862Uppsala University
1910AlbrechtKosselMaleGermany 1853University of Heidelberg
1909TheodorKocherMaleSwitzerland 1841Berne University
1908PaulEhrlichMaleGermany 1854Königliches Institut für experimentelle Therapie
1908IlyaMechnikovMaleRussia 1845Institut Pasteur
1907AlphonseLaveranMaleFrance 1845Institut Pasteur
1906CamilloGolgiMaleItaly 1843Pavia University
1906SantiagoRamón y CajalMaleSpain 1852Madrid University
1905Robert KochMaleGermany 1843Institute for Infectious Diseases
1904IvanPavlovMaleRussia 1849Military Medical Academy
1903Niels RybergFinsenMaleDenmark 1860Finsen Medical Light Institute
1902RonaldRossMaleUnited Kingdom 1857University College
1901Emilvon BehringMaleGermany 1854Marburg University


Sources: Nobelprize