Glossary of terms
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High blood pressure, HBP or hypertension
- High blood pressure, HBP or hypertension
- High blood pressure, HBP or hypertension is defined as:
- systolic blood pressure of 140 or higher or diastolic blood pressure of 90 or higher;
- taking medicine to lower blood pressure;
- being told twice by a doctor or other healthcare professional that you have hypertension.
- High blood pressure is a major risk factor for heart attack, stroke, heart failure and kidney failure. The longer it's left untreated, the more serious its complications can become.(American Heart Association)
- Hypertension treatment is recommended to bring BP (blood pressure) to less than 140/90 mmHg or BP less than 130/80 mmHg in patients with diabetes or chronic kidney disease. The modification of the patient lifestyle is an important component of the treatment. The following recommendations are endorsed by physicians:
|Lifestyle modifications to prevent and manage hypertension|
||Approximate SBP¹ Reduction
||Maintain normal body weight (body mass index 18.5–24.9 kg/m2).
|Adopt DASH² eating plan
||Consume a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and low fat dairy products with a reduced content of saturated and total fat.
|Dietary sodium reduction
||Reduce dietary sodium intake to no more than 100 mmol per day (2.4 g sodium or 6 g sodium chloride).
||Engage in regular aerobic physical activity such as brisk walking (at least 30 min per day, most days of the week).
|Moderation of alcohol
||Limit consumption to no more than consumption 2 drinks³ per day in most men, and to no more than 1 drink per day in women and lighter weight persons.
- ¹ SBP: systolic blood pressure.
- ² DASH: Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension.
- ³ 1 drink = 1.5 cL or 1/2 oz ethanol (e.g., 35.5 cL or 12 oz beer, 15 cL or 5 oz wine, 4.5 cL or 1.5 oz 80-proof whisky).
- (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of US Department of Health and Human Services, 2004)