areppim: information, pure and simple

Glossary of terms

areppim: information, pure and simple

You are here:   areppim >  Glossary of terms >   Caloric needs

Caloric intake needs

One calorie is the amount of energy needed to increase the temperature of 1 g of water from 14.5o to 15.5oC. In the context of food and nutrition, the official unit of measurement for food energy is kilocalories (kcal), but the term "calories" is commonly used in its place.
Energy is required to sustain the body’s various functions, including respiration, circulation, physical work, and maintenance of core body temperature. Imbalances between intake and expenditure result in gains or losses of body components, mainly in the form of fat, and these determine changes in body weight.
 
It is difficult to establish individual caloric intake needs, given the many variables at play. In 2002 the US Institute of Medicine (IOM, see ref. below) issued a report on dietary reference intakes, including a set of Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) for healthy people. EER is helpful for an individual in assessing the probability that usual energy intake is inadequate.
 
"The EER is the average dietary energy intake that is predicted to maintain energy balance in a healthy adult of a defined age, gender, weight, height, and level of physical activity consistent with good health. In children and pregnant and lactating women, the EER is taken to include the needs associated with the deposition of tissues or the secretion of milk at rates consistent with good health." For people suffering from overweight and obesity, who are not technically healthy, a different indicator is used, i.e. Total Energy Expenditure (TEE). The EER and TEE equations are as follows:
 

Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)

Age

Male

Female

Adults
(19 Years and Older)

662 - (9.53 × age [y]) + PA × (15.91 × weight [kg] + 539.6 × height [m])
where PA:
1.00 - sedentary
1.11 - low active
1.25 - active
1.48 - very active
354 - (6.91 × age [y]) + PA × (9.36 × weight [kg] + 726 × height [m])
where PA:
1.00 - sedentary
1.12 - low active
1.27 - active
1.45 - very active

Adolescents
(9 Through 18 Years)

88.5 - (61.9 × age [y]) + PA × (26.7 × weight [kg] + 903 × height [m]) + 25 kcal
where PA:
1.00 - sedentary
1.13 - low active
1.26 - active
1.42 - very active
135.3 - (30.8 × age [y]) + PA × (10.0 × weight [kg] + 934 × height [m]) + 25 kcal
where PA:
1.00 - sedentary
1.16 - low active
1.31 - active
1.56 - very active

Children
(3 Through 8 years)

88.5 - (61.9 × age [y]) + PA × (26.7 × weight [kg] + 903 × height [m]) + 20 kcal
where PA:
1.00 - sedentary
1.13 - low active
1.26 - active
1.42 - very active
135.3 - (30.8 × age [y]) + PA × (10.0 × weight [kg] + 934 × height [m]) + 20 kcal
where PA:
1.00 - sedentary
1.16 - low active
1.31 - active
1.56 - very active

Infants
(Ages 0 Through 36 Months)

0–3 months : (89 × weight [kg] - 100) + 175 kcal
4–6 months : (89 × weight [kg] - 100) + 56 kcal
7–12 months : (89 × weight [kg] - 100) + 22 kcal
13–36 months : (89 × weight [kg] - 100) + 20 kcal

19–50 years Pregnant

  1st trimester = adult EER + 0 + 0
2nd trimester = adult EER + 160 kcal (8 kcal/wk × 20 wk) + 180 kcal
3rd trimester = adult EER + 272 kcal (8 kcal/wk × 34 wk) + 180 kcal

14–18 years Pregnant

  1st trimester = adolescent EER + 0 + 0
2nd trimester = adolescent EER + 160 kcal (8 kcal/wk × 20 wk) + 180 kcal
3rd trimester = adolescent EER + 272 kcal (8 kcal/wk × 24 wk) + 180 kcal

19–50 Years Lactation

  1st 6 mo = adult EER + 500 - 170
2nd 6 mo = adult EER + 400 - 0

14–18 Years Lactation

  1st 6 mo = adolescent EER + 500 - 170
2nd 6 mo = adolescent EER + 400 - 0

Overweight and Obese
19 Years and Older

TEE = 1086 - (10.1 × age [y]) + PA × (13.7 × weight [kg] + 416 × height [m])
where PA:
1.00 - sedentary
1.12 - low active
1.29 - active
1.59 - very active
TEE = 448 - (7.95 × age [y]) + PA × (11.4 × weight [kg] + 619 × height [m])
where PA:
1.00 - sedentary
1.16 - low active
1.27 - active
1.44 - very active

Overweight
3 Through 18 Years

TEE = 114 - (50.9 × age [y]) + PA × (19.5 × weight [kg] + 1161.4 × height [m])
where PA:
1.00 - sedentary
1.12 - low active
1.24 - active
1.45 - very active
TEE = 389 - (41.2 × age [y]) + PA × (15.0 × weight [kg] + 701.6 × height [m])
where PA:
1.00 - sedentary
1.18 - low active
1.35 - active
1.60 - very active
Notes:
PA: Physical Activity index. Age in years, weight in kg, and height in m.
 
Physical Activity Level (PAL) is an important factor of EER. IOM considers 4 PAL categories with reference to a normal-weight adult (BMI 18.5 to 24.9):
  • Sedentary : PAL = 1.0 < 1.4 - Only the physical activities that are required for independent living.
  • Low Active : PAL = 1.4 < 1.6 - Sedentary + equivalent of 30-minute walking at ± 6 km/h daily.
  • Active : PAL = 1.6 < 1.9 - Sedentary + equivalent of 1-hour walking at ± 6 km/h daily.
  • Very Active : PAL = 1.9 < 2.5 - Sedentary + equivalent of 4-hour walking at ± 6 km/h daily.
The active physical activity level is recommended to maintain health.
 
Based on the above, the US Department of Health has established Daily Values that provide a reliable guide for most people. It is helpful to know that a 2,000-calorie level is about right for moderately active women, teenage girls, and sedentary men, and 2,500 calories is the target level for many men, teenage boys, and active women. Many older adults, children, and sedentary women need fewer than 2,000 calories a day and may want to select target levels based on 1,600 calories a day. Some active men and teenage boys and very active women may want to select target levels based on 2,800 calories per day.
 
[References: Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids, 5 Sep. 2002, Institute of Medicine, USA, and Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005, 6th Edition, Washington, DC: U.S. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture.]
 
  Calculate your own caloric intake needs with areppim's Calories Intake Calculator.